To Educate the Nations 2 (Reflections on an international education)
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However, many institutions are also seeking cooperative agreements to deepen and broaden the quality of what they do and to define themselves as global institutions. They may want to pursue a variety of goals through engagement — to enrich their academic programmes, enlarge the knowledge and experience base for their students, host a more internationally diverse student body and faculty, provide more opportunities for their faculty to join international research networks and ultimately to develop a wide spectrum of joint activity that will benefit both partners.
Whether encouraged by their countries or a self-designed initiative, transparency and clearly stated goals will be essential.
As with all sustainable relationships, the character of the parties and the ethical framework in which they operate are all-important. Countries and institutions have an obligation to consider the benefits not merely to themselves but also to their partners. This will be in the best spirit of international diplomacy and internationalisation of higher education. If done well, it will be a rising tide that lifts all ships.
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Home Blog. Global higher education as a reflection of international relations Publishing , Strategic networks. By Patti McGill Peterson. Beyond sovereignty As we enter a period of accelerated global connectivity between higher education institutions, it is clear that educational diplomacy will not merely be led by government agencies or organisations founded to promote the education and cultural values of their countries. Sound diplomacy for strong relationships It would be safe to say that in most negotiations there are mixed motives for seeking engagement.
Multicultural education is beneficial in academic, emotional and personal ways in which they learn about others and even themselves. As student perspectives of multicultural education remain positive, allowing other students to become exposed to this subject may encourage and conclude in consistent, positive attitudes towards other cultures.
Multicultural education plays a huge role in the way students perceive themselves and others, but there is still more work to be done. In some college syllabi, there is cultural sensitivity and multicultural competence. However, a lot of them lack the design to prepare teachers with consistent ways of the defining principles of multicultural education and preparation of teaching multicultural education authentically Gorski, It is important for teachers to be fully knowledgeable of its depth and open to learn more about it as time goes on so they can create a safe space for their students.
It is also important to see that although multicultural education is becoming more known and taught, there is still so much to learn and discover within this topic, and there always will be more to learn as we evolve. Even teachers need to be taught and become exposed to different dimensions of multicultural education in order to teach and revolutionize student attitudes about this topic. New teachers can be blind to the diversity of their students, which can lead to generalizations and stereotypes about different cultures.
New teachers being able to take a multicultural education class leads to increased knowledge of diversity, altering of attitudes towards multiculturalism, and preparedness of them teaching multicultural education to students of a variety of backgrounds Wasonga, Multicultural education courses conclude eye-opening measures for the teachers, including becoming more open to such issues and positively affected preparedness to teach about multicultural education to their students.
A similar result happened in another study, in which the multicultural education course led to "increased awareness, understanding, and appreciation of other cultures. Many educators may think that when holding cultural parties, listening to music, or sampling foods related to different cultures that they are sufficiently promoting multiculturalism, but Fullinwider suggests these activities fail to address the deeper values and ideas behind cultural customs through which true understanding is reached Fullinwider, , and Levinson adds that such practices could lead to "trivializing real differences; teachers end up teaching or emphasizing superficial differences in order to get at fundamental similarities"  p.
Fullinwider also discusses challenges which could arise in multicultural education when teachers from the majority culture begin to delve into these deeper issues. For example, when majority teachers interact with minority students, the distinction between "high culture" and "home culture" needs to be clear or else faculty and staff members could mistakenly withdraw their rightful authority to evaluate and discipline students' conduct and quality of work Fullinwider, To clarify, without a clear understanding of true culture, educators could easily misattribute detrimental conduct or sub-par behavior to a minority student's cultural background Fullinwider, or misinterpret signs that a student may require out-of-school intervention.
Both would result in the student not receiving a fitting and appropriate education. Multicultural education in classroom settings has been a hidden factor that affects students with a diverse culture.
The 11th Asian Conference on Education (ACE12222)
Although multicultural education has positive approaches on helping students, there are ways in which it does not fully benefit all of those who need it. For example, "It generally it ignores the minority students' own responsibility for their academic performance. A second factor is "multicultural education theories and programs are rarely based on the actual study of minority cultures and languages. Lastly, "The inadequacy of the multicultural education solution fails to separate minority groups that are able to cross cultural and language boundaries and learn successfully even though there were initial cultural barriers.
These factors shows how multicultural education has positive intentions but in the societal spectrum it lacks aspects that are crucial for the development of minority students. Levinson notes that tenets of multicultural education have the potential to conflict directly with the purposes of educating in the dominant culture and some tenants conflict with each other.
Levinson argues that a facet of multicultural education i. Levinson also brings up, similar to Fullinwider, the conflict between minority group preservation and social justice and equity. When educators help to preserve this type of culture, they can also be seen encouraging the preservation of gender and other inequalities. Similar to the inclusive versus exclusive education debate, Levinson goes as far to suggest segregated schools to teach minority students in order to achieve a "culturally congruent"1 education. She argues that in a homogeneous class it is easier to change curriculum and practices to suit the culture of the students so that they can have equal educational opportunities and status in the culture and life of the school.
Thus, when considering multicultural education to include teaching in a culturally congruent manner, Levinson supports segregated classrooms to aid in the success of this. Segregation, as she admits, blatantly goes against multiculturalism thus highlighting the inner conflicts that this ideology presents.
Another challenge to multicultural education is that the extent of multicultural content integration in a given school tends to be related to the ethnic composition of the student body. That is, as Agirdag and colleagues have shown,  teachers tend to incorporate more multicultural educational in schools with a higher share of ethnic minority students. However, there is no fundamental reason why only schools with ethnic minority pupils should focus on multicultural education.
On the contrary, in particular there is a need for White students, who are largely separated from their ethnic minority peers in White-segregated schools, to become more familiar with ethnic diversity. While ethnic minority students learn in many contexts about the mainstream society in which they live, for White students the school context might be the only places where they can have meaningful encounters with ethnic and religious others.
Banks poses challenges that can occur at the systemic level of schools. First, it is noted that schools must rely on teachers' personal beliefs or a willingness to allow for their personal beliefs to be altered in order for multicultural education to truly be effective within classrooms.
Second it requires for schools and teachers to knowledge that there is a blatant curriculum as well as a latent curriculum that operates within each school; with latent curriculum being the norms of the school that are not necessarily articulated but are understood and expected by all. Third schools must rely on teachers to teach towards students becoming global citizen which again, relies on teachers' willing to embrace other cultures in order to be able to convey to and open-mindedness to their students. Fullinwider also brings to light the challenge of whether or not teachers believe and the effectiveness of a multicultural education.
More specifically, he points out that teachers may fear bringing up matter within multicultural education that could truly be effective because said matters could be equally effective and potentially harmful Fullinwider For example, discussing history between races and ethnic groups could help students to view different perspectives and foster understanding amongst groups or such a lesson could cause further division within the classroom and create a hostile environment for students.
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Journal of European Social Policy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Used with permission. New York: Random House. A Critical Perspective. Acknowledging Differences Optimizing Collaboration. A Core Value of International Education.
To Educate the Nations - AbeBooks - George Walker:
A Case Study of Two Schools. Potential for Conflict? Exploring Some of the Issues. Boundaries Ambiguities and Synergies.
Towards a Research Agenda. Internationalism in the Context of Teaching and Learning.