Stress: A Brief History (Blackwell Brief Histories of Psychology)
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This popular method even earned Wagner-Jauregg the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first ever awarded for the field of psychiatry. By then, however, the professional community was ready to move on to the next fad — insulin shock therapy. Brought to the United States by Manfred Sakel, a German neurologist, insulin shock therapy injected high levels of insulin into patients to cause convulsions and a coma. After several hours, the living dead would be revived from the coma, and thought cured of their madness.
This process would be repeated daily for months at a time, with doctors sometimes administering as many as 50 to 60 treatments per patient, according to Lieberman. However, the procedure was obviously risky and caused amnesia.
Nevertheless, the treatment proved popular based on a questionable success rate. Another shock therapy was yet to come. The key? Laszlo von Meduna, a Hungarian physician, discovered that the drug metrazol could produce seizure-like convulsions in patients, therefore shocking their brains out of mental illness.
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- Stress A Brief History Blackwell Brief Histories Of Psychology.
It proved to be a shock physically as well. Beyond its terrifying experience, metrazol shock therapy also produced retrograde amnesia.
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Buzz box, shock factory, power cocktail, stun shop, the penicillin of psychiatry. One of the most infamous treatments for mental illness includes electroconvulsive shock therapy. Types of non-convulsive electric shock therapy can be traced back as early as the 1st century A. ECT carried less risk of fracture than metrazol shock therapy, and with the use of anesthetics and muscle relaxers in later years, the fracture rate became negligible.
Ernest Hemingway, for example, died by suicide shortly after an ECT treatment. It was truly a miracle treatment. Around the same time, doctors overseas performed the first lobotomies. The practice was brought to the United States thanks to Walter Freeman, who began experimenting with lobotomies in the mids, which required damaging neural connections in the prefrontal cortex area of the brain thought to cause mental illness.
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According to de Young, despite the side effects, by the time Freeman died in , approximately 50, lobotomies had been performed on U. However, less than lobotomies were performed per year in the s. By then, medication dominated mental health treatment. Drugs had been used in treating the mentally ill as far back as the mids. Their purpose then was to sedate patients to keep overcrowded asylums more manageable, a kind of chemical restraint to replace the physical restraints of earlier years.
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Doctors administered drugs such as opium and morphine, both of which carried side effects and the risk of addiction. Toxic mercury was used to control mania. Barbiturates put patients into a deep sleep thought to improve their madness. Chloral hydrate came of use in the s, but like the drugs before it, it had side effects, including psychotic episodes. And then came Thorazine, the medical breakthrough psychiatrists had seemingly been searching for all these years.
The Protective Reaction. Summary of the First half of the 20th Century. From the s to Richard Lazarus. Stress in the s and s. Stressful Life Events. The Social Readjustment Scale.
Daily Hassles and Uplifts and the Debate that Followed. Personality and Type A Behavior Patterns. Towards the Study of Individual Differences. A Return to the s and s and a change in Focus. The History of Stress in Sweden. The Origins of Organizational Psychology. The Work of Richard Lazarus.
The Berkeley Stress and Coping Project. A Historical Look at Appraisal. The Nature of Appraisals and the debate that Followed. Lazarus and the process of Coping. Ways of Coping Questionnaire. Lazarus and Emotions. Work Stress and Occupational Health Psychology. Work Stress. Beyond Role Conflict, Ambiguity and Overload. Early Research Frameworks and Identifying Strains. Toward an Integrated Model of Work Stress. Work Stress and Coping. Occupational Health Psychology. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
From the Past to the Future. What does History add to Our Understanding of Stress?. Searching for the Organizing Concept of the future. Distinguishing Between Description and Meaning. Why Stress?
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Fulfilling Our moral Responsibility. Reviews "Mental health problems and stress-related disorders are often the cause of early death.
Dr. Richard W. J. (Jim) Neufeld
Cary Cooper's and Philip Dewe's book is a fascinating and highly readable account of the long and difficult journey to this insight. I recommend it strongly. Stress and Health, 20, , "This must be the definitive book on the history of stress, written by specialists in organisational psychology and behaviour